Hastings Photographers: Ga-Gr

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Professional Photographers in Hastings ( Ga-Gr ) 

W. Newton Gardiner - R. Gardner - John James Gasson - D. Gates - Bernard Henry Gidney - Elizabeth Gillard - Henry James Godbold - Godbold & Basebe - Charles Goddard -

 William Golding - Golding & Vicat - Arthur Henry Goldsack - Benjamin Graham & Co. - Charles S. Gray - James Henry Greener - James Griggs - The Grosvenor Studio - William Thomas Groves

W. Newton Gardiner

   

R. Gardner

   

John James Gasson (born 1841, Rye, Sussex) - Photographer in Hastings in 1881

[ABOVE] A portrait of John James Gasson (born 1841, Rye, Sussex), photographed by his uncle Edwin Thomas Gasson, photographic artist of 21 King Street, Rye (c1860). John James Gasson [the illegitimate son of (Sarah) Emily Gasson, the photographer's elder sister] followed in his uncle's footsteps and became a professional photographer. John Gasson worked as a photographer in Hastings, Winchester and Rawtenstall in Lancashire.

John James Gasson was born in January 1841 and baptised in Rye, Sussex, on 8th May 1841. He was the illegitimate son of Sarah Emily Gasson (born 1818, New Romney, Kent), the elder sister of Edwin Thomas Gasson (1827-1904), who was later to become a photographic artist in Rye. Emily had a second child out of wedlock, a daughter named Mary Ann Elizabeth Gasson (born 1843, Rye) before marrying John Chappell Pulford (born 1818, Rye), a local mariner, in 1846.

Sarah Emily Gasson who preferred to be known by her second name "Emily", was the daughter of Edmund Gasson (born c1789, Rye) and Mary Woodham (born c1790, Winchelsea).

When the census was taken on 30th March 1851, Emily, now married to John Chappell Pulford, was living at a house in Landgate, Rye. Mrs Emily Pulford's two illegitimate children, John Gasson, aged 9, and Mary Ann Gasson, aged 7, were raised and supported by John Pulford as if they were his own children. A few doors away lived John Gasson's uncle Edwin Thomas Gasson, who, in January 1858, became Rye's first resident photographer. It is likely that John James Gasson received instruction in the art and science of photography from Edwin Thomas Gasson. A portrait taken of John James Gasson by Edwin Thomas Gasson at his photographic studio in King Street, Rye, around 1860, shows that John visited his uncle's studio when he was a young man. Edwin Thomas Gasson also worked as a picture frame maker and as a "naturalist" or taxidermist and, on the 1861 census, John James Gasson gives his occupation as "naturalist", so he may have assisted his uncle in his taxidermy.

In 1868, John Gasson's mother died and John Pulford, John's step-father remarried. It appears that after the death of his mother, John James Gasson left Rye and worked as a travelling photographer. The 1871 census records John J. Gasson as a "Photographer" in Winchester, lodging with a local baker named John Bryant.

 At the time of the 1881 census, John Gasson was living with his married sister Mrs Mary Ann Bridges and her husband Esaias Bridges (born 1841, Canterbury, Kent), a "journeyman cabinet maker", at 11 Hughenden Place, Upper Hughenden Road, Ore, Hastings. On the 1881 census return, John James Gasson is described as a "Photographer", aged 39.

By 1885, John James Gasson had established a photographic portrait studio above a store in Bank Street, Rawtenstall, a town at the centre of the Rossendale Valley in Lancashire. When the 1891 census was taken (John) James Gasson was recorded as a "Photographer", aged 50, residing at 12 Baldwin Chambers, South Street, Rawtenstall, Lancashire. Local trade directories list J, Gasson as a photographer in Mill Street, Rawtenstall. A Lancashire trade directory published in 1895 gives the address of Gasson's studio as 10 Baldwin Chambers, Rawtenstall.

D. GATES  - Active as a Daguerreotype and Photographic Artist in St Leonards-on-Sea during 1854

Mr. D. Gates first appeared as a daguerreotype and photographic artist in St Leonards-on-Sea during the Summer of 1854. An advertisement for D. Gates, "Daguerreotype and Photographic Artist" of 13 East Ascent, St. Leonards-on-Sea, appeared in the Sussex Express newspaper on 19th August 1854. In his advertisements, Mr D. Gates, offered an "excellent likeness, taken with all the new improvements, by the agency of light, enamelled and warranted not to fade in any climate, for 2s 6d." Mr Gates' last advertisement for his photographic studio in East Ascent appeared in November 1854 and he appears to have left the seaside resort by the end of the year.

I have not been able to trace any evidence of D. Gates working as a photographer before he arrived in St Leonards-on-Sea in 1854. Bernard Heathcote and Pauline Heathcote, who have thoroughly researched the earliest portrait photographers of the British Isles* believe D. Gates was an itinerant photographer.

[ABOVE] An  advertisement for D. Gates, "Daguerreotype and Photographic Artist" of 13 East Ascent, St. Leonards-on-Sea, which appeared in the Sussex Express newspaper on 30th September 1854.

* "A Faithful Likeness: The First Photographic Portrait Studios in the British Isles, 1841 to 1855" by Bernard & Pauline Heathcote (2002)

Bernard Henry Gidney (born 1856, Hampstead, London - died 1920, West Ham, East London)

Bernard Henry Gidney was born in Hampstead, London, in 1856, the eldest of 12 children born to Hannah Merry and Charles Gidney, a ham & beef dealer from London. Charles Gidney (born c1830, Bow, East London) had married Hannah Merry (born c1831, Islington, London) in the City of London in 1854. Over a period of 16 years, Mrs Hannah Gidney (c1831-1920) gave birth to at least 12 children - Bernard Henry Gidney (born 1856, Hampstead, Middx.), Florence Amelia (born 1857, Hampstead, Middx.), Annie (born 1858, Hampstead, Middx.), Charles Herbert Gidney (born 1860, Islington, Middx.), Mortimer Charles Gidney (born 1861, Islington, Middx.), Emily Ann (born 1863, West Ham), Kate (born 1864,Hoxton, Shoreditch), Walter Merry Gidney (born 1866, Hoxton, Shoreditch, London), Nelly (born 1867, Stepney, Mile End, London), Clara (born 1868, Stepney, Mile End, London), Arthur Edward Gidney (born 1869, Stepney, Mile End, London) and Fanny Maria Gidney (born 1872, Mile End, London). Both Bernard Henry Gidney (1856-1920) and his younger brother Mortimer Charles Gidney* (1861-1933) - also known as Charles M. Gidney - became professional photographers in adult life.

After he left school, Bernard Henry Gidney found employment as an "office lad", but in his twenties he took up photography as a profession. When the 1881 census was taken, Bernard Henry Gidney was recorded as a 25 year old "Photographer" staying at the home of Joseph Swain and family at Bexley Cottage, Cobourg Passage, Hastings. The head of the household  Joseph Swain was working as a tailor in Hastings. Joseph Swaine and his wife Caroline had a daughter named Emily (born 1859, Hastings) who, at the time of the 1881 census, was working as a "Hosier's Assistant". On 25th December 1883 at St Andrew's Church, Hastings, Bernard Henry Gidney married Emily Swain, Joseph and Caroline Swain's daughter.

After his marriage in 1883, Bernard Henry Gidney and his wife moved to the Hampshire town of Basingstoke. Bernard and Emily Gidney's daughter Ethel Violet Gidney was born in Basingstoke during the 4th Quarter of 1886. By 1890, Bernard Henry Gidney had established his own photographic portrait studio in London Street, Basingstoke. (The 1890 edition of Kelly's Directory of Hampshire lists Bernard H. Gidney as a professional photographer at London Street, Basingstoke). Bernard Henry Gidney and his family were still residing in Basingstoke when the census was taken on 5th April 1891.

By the time the 1901 census was taken, Bernard Henry Gidney was working as a professional photographer in East London. The 1901 census records Bernard H. Gidney as a forty-four year old photographer working in the Borough of West Ham. A decade later, the 1911 census shows Bernard Henry Gidney, his wife Emily, and their twenty-four year old daughter Ethel at 32 Janson Road, Stratford, West Ham. On the 1911 census return, Bernard Henry Gidney is described as a "Photographer", aged 55.

Bernard Henry Gidney died in the Borough of West Ham during the 2nd Quarter of 1920 at the age of 64.

Mortimer Charles Gidney* (1861-1933) - also known as Charles M. Gidney - established himself as a portrait photographer in Leytonstone, Essex (now East London). Under the name of C. M. Gidney, Mortimer Charles Gidney operated photographic studios in Leytonstone Road and Mornington Place, Holloway Down, Leytonstone between 1890 and 1908.

 

[ABOVE] The trade plate of the photographer Bernard Henry Gidney of London Street, Basingstoke, which appeared at the foot of the portrait photographs he produced around 1890.

*

Elizabeth Gillard

   

Henry James GODBOLD (born 1842, Islington, London - died 1927, Amesbury, Wiltshire) - Photographer in Hastings & St Leonards between 1865 and 1891

Henry James Godbold was born in Islington in North London on 14th May 1842, the son of  Lucy Eyles and John Godbold, a "Broker's Agent". On 6th May 1864, at Christ Church, Highbury, Henry James Godbold married Emma Matilda Cross (born 1838, Clerkenwell, London), the daughter of Hugh McIntosh Cross, a London bookseller. At the time of his marriage, Henry Godbold was employed by The London School of Photography, a large and successful firm of portrait photographers.

By the Summer of 1865, Henry Godbold and his wife were living in Hastings. Around the time of his marriage to Emma Cross, Henry Godbold took over an established photographic studio at No. 2 Robertson Street, Hastings. (The photographic studio of  H. J. Godbold at 2 Robertson Street is listed in R. Simpson & Co.'s Hastings & St Leonards Directory of 1865 ). By September 1866, Henry Godbold had formed the firm of Godbold & Co and was operating a branch studio at the business premises of Edwin Whiteman (1834-1876), a bookseller who ran Whiteman's Library at 52 High Street, Hastings.

The arrangement whereby a photographer from Godbold & Co. took photographic portraits at Whiteman's Library lasted until the early summer of 1868. From the middle of 1868 to 1869, Henry Godbold operated solely from his original studio at 2 Robertson Street, Hastings. In addition to cartes-de-visite and cabinet photographic portraits, Godbold produced stereoscopic and album views of Hastings, St. Leonards-on-Sea, and the surrounding neighbourhood. Henry Godbold also took his camera to special outdoor events, making a pictorial record of public meetings, sporting events and civic celebrations (e.g. political hustings held in Hastings during the General Election of 1865, prize giving at a meeting of the Society of St Leonards Archers during the Summer of 1865).

In 1869, Henry J. Godbold closed his studio in Robertson Street and moved into Charles Newcombe's former studio at 22 White Rock Place, which had recently been vacated by Henry Ashdown. The studio at 22 White Rock Place was well situated on the seafront near Hastings Pier. In 1870, Henry Godbold decided to vacate his White Rock studio and move further along the coast to the neighbouring seaside resort of St. Leonards-on-Sea.

Henry Godbold established a photographic portrait studio at his new house in Grand Parade, St Leonards-on-Sea. H. J. Godbold was to operate a photographic studio at 8 Grand Parade, St Leonards for twenty-one years, from 1870 until 1891.

In 1888, Henry James Godbold, together with several other local professional photographers and a large number of amateurs, was involved in the setting up of the Hastings & St Leonards Photographic Society. Henry Godbold remained on the Committee of the Hastings & St Leonards Photographic Society until he left the town in 1902.

By 1889, Henry James Godbold had established a photographic studio at 25 White Rock, Hastings, a few doors from the premises he had occupied twenty years earlier. Shortly after his return to Hastings, H. J. Godbold closed his St Leonards-on-Sea studio at 8 Grand Parade. Around 1894, Godbold opened a second studio at No. 38 White Rock. Pike's 1894 Directory of Hastings lists Godbold & Co. with photographic studios at 25 White Rock and 38 White Rock, Hastings.

By 1903, Henry James Godbold had closed his studio in Hastings and had moved to London. Henry J. Godbold and his son Arthur Douglas Godbold entered into a business partnership and opened a photographic portrait studio at 74 Baker Street, London under the name of Henry James Godbold & Son. Father and son worked alongside each other for only a brief period, because Henry Godbold, who had celebrated his sixtieth birthday in May 1902, retired from the business the following year.

Henry James Godbold died in the Amesbury district of Wiltshire in 1927, at the age of 86.

[ABOVE] A carte-de-visite portrait of a young woman reading a letter by Henry J. Godbold, Artist Photographer of 8 Grand Parade, St. Leonards-on-Sea (c1872). [ABOVE] A carte-de-visite portrait of a seated  woman photographed by Henry J. Godbold at his studio at 2 Robertson Street, Hastings. Negative No. 616. (c1865)

[ABOVE] A portrait of the Hastings photographer Henry James Godbold (1842-1927), a detail from a group portrait of the Godbold family photographed around 1893. [ABOVE] The trade plate of Henry J. Godbold, a photographer with studios at  25 White Rock, Hastings, and  8 Grand Parade, St Leonards-on-Sea (c1890).

[Portrait of Henry J. Godbold - Courtesy of Peter Francis of Lingfield]

 
For a more detailed account of Henry J. Godbold's photographic career in Hastings & St Leonards, further examples of Godbold's photographic work and a detailed account of Henry Godbold's family, please click on the link below:

Henry James Godbold - Professional Photographer in Hastings and St Leonards-on-Sea

 

Charles GODDARD (born 1824, Rye, Sussex) - Photographic Artist in Hastings between 1858 and 1860

Charles Goddard was born in Rye, Sussex, on 18th February 1824, the son of Catherine and Felix Goddard. Charles Goddard was christened seven weeks later at the Wesleyan Chapel in Rye on 4th April 1824.

Charles Goddard was the fourth of eight children born to Catherine and Felix Goddard of Westenhanger, near Stanford in Kent. Felix Goddard (born c1789, Stanford, Kent) married Catherine Russell (born c1792) in Hythe, Kent on 25th November 1816. The marriage license describes Felix Goddard as a "Gentleman", but subsequent census returns give his occupation as "Clerk", with the 1861 census recording his final occupation as "Clerk- Merchant". The union of Felix Goddard and Catherine Russell produced at least eight children - John Fagg Goddard (born 1818), Alfred Goddard (born 1819), Catherine Goddard (born 1822), Charles Goddard (born 1824), George Goddard (born 1826), Ellen Goddard (born 1828), William Goddard (born 1831) and Edward Goddard (born 1834).

Charles Goddard showed a talent for drawing from a young age and in the 1840s he tried to further his artistic career by moving to London. On 14th November 1843, at the Holy Trinity Church in Clapham, Charles Goddard married a young widow called Mrs Lucy Ruffin. Born in the village of Buckland, near Dover, in Kent, in 1814, Lucy was the daughter of Sarah and John Hart. On 10th May 1835, at the age of twenty-one, Lucy Hart had married William Henry Ruffin, a painter and glazier from Dover. William Ruffin apparently died within a few years of his marriage to Lucy Hart. At the time of her marriage to Charles Goddard, Lucy was twenty-nine years of age, a decade older than her 19 year old husband.

During his stay in South London, Charles Goddard fathered three children - Helen Goddard, who was born in South London on 4th April 1844, Felix Charles Goddard, who was born in Lambeth on 14th March 1846 and Alfred Fagg Goddard, whose birth was registered in the district of Lambeth during the 3rd Quarter of 1848.

By the time the 1851 census was taken, Charles Goddard and his family were living in the High Street of Hastings. Charles Goddard's brothers, led by Alfred Goddard (born 1819) had formed a firm of ornamental painters, carvers & gilders in Rye and Hastings.

Charles Goddard was still pursuing an artistic career and in 1853 he exhibited two watercolours of domestic subjects at the Suffolk Street Gallery in London. It was while residing at 90 High Street, Hastings in 1853 that Charles Goddard submitted a painting entitled "The Parting" to an art exhibition at the Liverpool Academy.

By the late 1850s, Charles Goddard was earning a living as an artist and teacher of drawing in Hastings. Around 1858, Charles Goddard supplemented his income as an artist by taking photographic portraits in Hastings and Rye. In 1858, Charles Goddard was making weekly visits to Rye with his camera, taking photographic portraits in a temporary studio located "Opposite the London & County Bank" in High Street, Rye.

A directory of Hastings published in 1859 records Charles Goddard as a "photographic artist" at 2 Russell Street, Hastings. Charles shared the business premises at 2 Russell Street with his young brother George Goddard (born 1826), who was working as a carver & gilder. By July 1859, Charles Goddard was working as an "Artist & Photographer" at Priory Conservatory, Robertson Street, Hastings.

By the time the 1861 census was taken, Charles Goddard was residing at Portland College, Portland Place, Hastings, with his wife Lucy and his three sons, (Felix) Charles, aged 15, Alfred, aged 12, and John William, a six months old baby. [The birth of John William Goddard was registered in the district of Hastings during the 4th Quarter of 1860]. On the census return, Charles Goddard is described as an "Artist - Teacher of Drawing", aged 37.

In a street directory of Hastings published in 1878, Charles Goddard is listed as an artist residing at 9 St James's Road, Hastings. Mrs Lucy Goddard, Charles Goddard's wife, died at their home in Hastings in 1879, at the age of 65. When the census was taken on 3rd April 1881, Charles Goddard was entered on the return as a fifty-seven year old widower, earning his living as a "Painter, Artist & Teacher of Drawing". Sharing his house at 9 St James's Road was his youngest son, twenty year old John William Goddard who gives his occupation as "Decorator & Writer". The household was completed by Mrs Caroline Torrance, a forty-one year old widow serving as Goddard's housekeeper, and her four year old child, Kate H. Torrance.

[ABOVE] Charles Goddard listed as a "photographic artist" at 2 Russell Street, Hastings, in Kelly's  Post Office Sussex Directory, compiled in 1858, but published in 1859.

[ABOVE] A map of Hastings showing the location of Russell Street (marked by a red line) where Charles Goddard worked as a photographic artist in 1858

[ABOVE] An  advertisement for Charles Goddard, "Artist & Photographer" of Priory Conservatory, Robertson Street, Hastings in The Hastings & St Leonards News, dated 14th October  1859.

[ABOVE] A nineteenth century map of Hastings showing White Rock Place at the western end of the seafront and, running diagonally across the middle of the map, Robertson Street, where Charles Goddard's studio was located in 1859.  [Detail from an 1859 map of central Hastings].

 

William Thomas GOLDING (c1832-1890) - Photographic Artist in Hastings between 1854 and 1862

[ABOVE] A portrait believed to be a Memorial Cabinet Portrait of the early Hastings photographer William Thomas Golding (c1832-1890). This photograph was found in a family photograph album which belonged to Annie Golding (Mrs Annie Steel), William Golding's grand-daughter. [ABOVE] An engraved print of East Parade, Hastings, produced in October 1863 by Rock & Co. of London. A former Hastings upholsterer William Thomas Golding (c1832-1890) took over the photographic portrait studio at No. 6 East Parade, Hastings, in the Summer of 1854. William Golding took photographic likenesses at 6 East Parade, Hastings from August 1854 to July 1857. The earliest photographic portrait studio in Hastings had been opened at No. 6 East Parade by Richard Beauford in 1850.

[PHOTO: Courtesy of Karen Archer]

 
   
The Golding Family of Hastings

William Thomas Golding was born in Hastings, Sussex, around 1831, the son of Ann Brabert / Braban and Joseph Golding (c1791-1844), a fruiterer and greengrocer of Hastings.

Joseph Golding, William's father, was born near Hastings around 1791. (The christening of a Joseph Golding or Golden, the son of Mary Hill and Joseph or Josiah Golding was recorded in Fairlight, Hastings, on 20th November 1791). On 15th May 1816, at St Clement's Church, Hastings, Joseph Golding married Ann Braban (Brabert) - the marriage register records the bride as "Nanny Braban". The union of Joseph and Ann Golding produced at least 12 children - George (who died in infancy), Joseph Golding (born c1819), Mary Anne (born 1821 - died in infancy), Ann (born, 1823), Bartram (died in infancy), Elizabeth (born 1825), Robert (died in infancy), John (born c1829), William Thomas Golding (born c1832), Alfred (born c1833), Caroline (born 1839) and Sarah Jane Golding (born 1841). [NOTE: The family name of Golding is occasionally transcribed or written down as "Golden" in the historical records].

It appears that Joseph Golding and his wife might have turned to Methodism in the mid 1820s - Elizabeth Golding, who was born on 21st August 1825 was christened at Hastings Methodist Church on 25th September 1825. (A few years previously, on 20th June 1823, Ann Golding, Elizabeth's older sister, had been baptised at St Clement's Church, Hastings - the church where her parents had married seven years earlier).

The Golding Family and the St Clement's Caves in Hastings

In the late 1820s, Joseph Golding achieved a measure of fame when he excavated the recently re-discovered caves under West Hill and opened them to the public as a tourist attraction. These sandstone caves were ancient and had reputedly been used by smugglers during the 18th century, but the entrance to the underground passages had been blocked up in 1811 by Edward Milward, the owner of the land, because of the nuisance caused by "persons digging away sand for domestic purposes". There are conflicting stories of how the caves were re-discovered. One story recounts that the caves were revealed in the 1820s when John Scott of Gloucester Place, Hastings, engaged some labourers to do some building work in his garden. The London Illustrated News reported that "in digging the foundations for a summer-house at the end of his garden, the ground suddenly gave way and the workmen dropped into a cave". Another version of the caves' discovery credits Joseph Golding himself and tells how "Joseph Golding, a 34 year old greengrocer was cutting a garden seat into the side of the cliff, when his pick went through the rock opening a large cavern". Another account states that Joseph Golding, a greengrocer by trade, had been employed by John Scott as a gardener and he had uncovered the caves while carrying out work for Mr Scott. What is certain is that after Mr Scott left Hastings, Joseph Golding obtained a lease on the caves and enlarged the underground passages and constructed a new entrance to the caves Under the name of "St Clement's Caves", the network of underground passages were opened to the public as a tourist attraction on 28th July 1827.

Joseph Golding senior - Fruiterer & Greengrocer of Hastings

At the time of William Golding's birth, his father, Joseph Golding was obtaining a small income from the St Clement's Caves but his main employment was as a fruiterer and greengrocer. Pigot & Co.'s Provincial Commercial Directory of Sussex issued for the years 1832-1834, records Joseph Golding as a "Fruiterer" at 20 Hill Street, Hastings. Pigot & Co.'s Directory of Hastings, published in 1840, lists Joseph Golding at 42 High Street, Hastings, under the general heading of "Fruiterers". When the 1841 census was taken, Joseph Golding, his wife Ann and five of their surviving children - Joseph (aged 20), Elizabeth (aged 16), John (aged 12), William Thomas (aged 10), and Alfred (aged 8) were residing in the living quarters attached to Joseph Golding's fruit shop at 42 High Street, Hastings.

Joseph Golding died at the age of 53 on 7th December 1844 after a "long and painful illness" (recorded as "Consumption" - or pulmonary tuberculosis - on the death certificate). Joseph Golding junior, Joseph Golding's eldest son, took over the running of his father's fruit and greengrocery business. The lease and keys to St Clement's Caves also passed to his eldest son.

St. Clement's Caves, Hastings

St Clement's Caves are a network of underground passageways and tunnels situated in West Hill, Hastings. The original subterranean passages in the sandstone hill were enlarged when people in the area dug into the soft rock with picks and shovels for the purpose of obtaining sand and the tunnels were essentially 'sand mines'. It was rumoured that the caves which were formed by these excavations were regularly used as storehouses by local smugglers. In 1811, Edward Milward, the owner of the land, closed up the entrances to the caves, but in 1824 they were rediscovered when workmen, employed by John Scott of Gloucester Place to improve his garden, uncovered the network of underground passages. Joseph Golding, a local greengrocer who worked as a gardener for Mr Scott, secured a lease on the caves when his employer moved out of Hastings. It is reported that the enterprising Joseph Golding spent long periods of time cutting new passages and constructing a new entrance to the caves. Mr Golding opened the underground passageways to the public as a tourist attraction on 28th July 1827. Over a period of years, Joseph Golding formed new galleries and arcades and carved large statues from the sandstone rock. (The giant sandstone figures were supposed to represent famous personalities such as Napoleon and Sir Walter Scott). After the death of Joseph Golding, his widow, Mrs Ann Golding, and her eldest son, Joseph Golding junior, ran St. Clement's Caves as a popular tourist attraction, charging sixpence for admission and providing guided tours by candlelight. The St Clement's Caves received a royal visit from the Prince and Princess of Wales in 1864 and the royal couple's two sons toured the caves in 1873. During the Second World War, St Clement's Caves were used as an air raid shelter. In 1989, the St Clement's Caves were re-opened as "Smugglers Adventure", a modern tourist attraction with interactive displays and life-size models. Still based in the original Victorian cave network, "Smugglers Adventure" underwent a refit in 2011 and is due to open again to holidaymakers in January 2012.

The Golding Family in Hastings

With his father's fruit and greengrocery business passing to his older brother Joseph Golding junior, William Thomas Golding found employment as an upholsterer. When the 1851 census was taken, Mrs Ann Golding, Joseph Golding senior's fifty-four year old widow was living with Jeremiah Croucher at Bexley Cottage, Cobourg Place, Hastings. (In an 1851 trade directory, a market gardener named John Croucher was listed at Bexley Cottage, Cobourg Passage, Hastings). Also residing with Jeremiah Croucher were five of Ann Golding's children from her marriage to Joseph Golding senior - Ann Golding (aged 26), William Thomas Golding (aged 19), Alfred Golding (aged 17), Caroline Golding (aged 11) and Sarah Jane Golding (aged 9). At the time of the 1851 census, nineteen year old William T. Golding was employed as an "Upholsterer" in the furniture trade. William's elder sister, Ann Golding, was to die at the end of the following year on 17th December 1852 at the age of 28. Mrs Ann Golding's eldest son, Joseph Golding junior had married Martha Harvey in 1845 and had established a fruiterers and greengrocery business at 16 George Street, Hastings. When the census was taken on 30th March 1851, Joseph Golding junior was residing in George Street with his heavily pregnant, twenty-eight year old wife Martha and their young daughter Ellen Jane Golding (born 1849, Hastings). Joseph and Martha Golding went on to produce five more daughters over the next 10 years - Margaret Anne (born 1851, Hastings), Martha Caroline (born 1853, Hastings), Caroline Elizabeth (born 1853, Hastings), Josephine Harrison Golding (born 1856, Hastings) and Ann Naomi Golding (born 1860, Hastings).

A number of William Golding's brothers and sisters died young. Four of Mrs Ann Golding's children - George, Mary Ann, Bartram and Robert Golding - had died in their infancy. William's sister Ann Golding died in 1852 at the age of 28 and it appears that John Golding, another brother, died in 1857 when he was still in his twenties. William Golding's youngest brother Alfred Golding was more fortunate. Born in Hastings around 1833, Alfred Golding married Mary Elizabeth Quick (born c1837, Brighton) in his bride's home town in 1855. Alfred Golding became an inn keeper and at the time of the 1881 census he was the landlord of The Tiger's Head at Chislehurst in Kent. On his retirement from business, Alfred Golding returned to Hastings where he died in 1907 at the age of 73.

Elizabeth Golding, William Golding's elder sister, married James Richard Bates on 17th December 1847 at St Clement's Church, Hastings. James Richard Bates (born 1827, Dallington, Sussex) was a "fruiterer & seedsman" like his brother-in-law Joseph Golding junior. After their marriage, James Bates and his wife moved to Brighton where they ran a fruiterer's shop. (Interestingly, between 1858 and 1859, James Richard Bates tried his hand at photography, taking likenesses at an upstairs studio at 10 North Street Quadrant, Brighton).

William  Golding - Photographic Artist in Hastings

William Thomas Golding worked as an upholsterer until the Summer of 1854, when he acquired the oldest established photographic studio in Hastings at No. 6 East Parade, Hastings. A daguerreotype portrait studio had been set up in East Parade by Richard Beauford (born c1816, London) four years previously in the Summer of 1850. Richard Beauford, who described himself as a "heliographist", had been taking photographic likenesses in nearby St Leonards-on-Sea as early as 1849. In a public notice placed in the "Hastings & St Leonards Chronicle" newspaper on 27th August 1850, Richard Beauford (whose real name was Richard Brothers Finlayson) announced that he had established a "branch establishment" at 6 East Parade, Hastings. Richard Beauford occupied the photographic studio in East Parade for the next three years, producing "Miniatureotype Portraits" on silvered copper with the aid of his "Daguerreotype Accelerator", Beauford's own invented apparatus for producing a likeness in a matter of a few seconds. In July 1853, Richard Beauford left Hastings to embark on a photographic tour of England and Wales. [Richard Beauford eventually settled in Ireland where he worked as a photographer until his death in Galway in 1886].

At the end of July 1853, Richard Beauford Daguerretype Establishment at No. 6 East Parade, Hastings, was purchased by the artist Jacob Henry Connop and his business partner Mr. White. The firm of White & Connop also acquired a licence to use "Beauford's Registered Daguerreotype Accelerator". The partnership between Mr White and Jacob Henry Connop was dissolved in October 1853 and for the next 10 months the studio at 6 East Parade, Hastings, was run by the artist under the name of "Connop's Daguerreotype Portrait Gallery".

By the end of August 1854, Jacob Henry Connop had sold the photographic portrait studio at 6 East Parade, Hastings to William Golding who, at that date, was a furniture upholsterer in his early twenties. When William Golding placed an advertisement in The Hastings & St Leonards News on 25th August 1854 to announce that he would be taking daguerreotype portraits at 6 East Parade, Hastings, he states that he was "Successor to R. Beauford", making no mention of Jacob Connop, his immediate predecessor at the East Parade studio. A daguerreotype was an early type of photograph whereby an image was fixed on a sheet of silvered copper. Golding's early newspaper advertisements drew the public's attention to the "superior manner and cheap terms on which he is taking daguerreotype portraits". Jacob Connop, William Golding's predecessor at the East Parade studio, had charged 5s 6d for a small, framed daguerreotype portrait in January 1854, yet Golding's small portraits were priced at "half-a-crown" (2s 6d) in January 1855. By May 1855, William Golding was producing stereoscopic portraits. A newspaper advertisement issued by Golding in May 1855 declared it was "impossible to convey the correct idea of these marvellous portraits" adding that "when examined with the stereoscope they are no longer flat pictures, but have the appearance of solid tangible models; and when coloured, they have the appearance of life itself."

For the first year, William Golding produced daguerreotype portraits almost exclusively, but by August 1855 he had adopted a new photographic process which created images on glass or paper. Details of this new photographic process had been published by its inventor Frederick Scott Archer in 1851. Archer's "wet collodion" process produced a glass negative which could make an unlimited number of prints on paper. The "wet collodion" process could also be used to create a cheap alternative to the cased daguerreotype portrait. By bleaching or underexposing the collodion glass negative and placing it on a black background, the image took on the appearance of a positive picture. The resulting "collodion positive" image was as sharp and clear as a daguerreotype, yet  was cheaper and less complicated to produce. One major disadvantage with a daguerreotype portrait was that the finished image was usually laterally reversed and only a few accomplished and technically proficient daguerreotype artists, such as Antoine Claudet, had the apparatus to produce "non-inverted" portraits. In August 1855, William Golding announced to the public that he had "just introduced another new process by which Portraits can be taken with great facility, and rendered so permanent as to resist any test of time or ill-treatment. By this mode the position of the sitter is not reversed in the picture, but the right and left are properly preserved." It is apparent that Golding was, by this date, using Frederick Scott Archer's "wet collodion process" and that he was now producing  (called "ambrotypes" in North America). Golding added that: "This process is specially adapted by its rapidity for taking portraits of children". During 1855, William Golding was taking both daguerreotypes and "highly finished photographic portraits" which could be "taken in a second". By the beginning of 1856, William Golding appears to have abandoned the daguerreotype and his "Photographic Portraits" were now "taken upon the newest and most approved principles".

William Golding took photographic likenesses at 6 East Parade, Hastings from August 1854 to July 1857. In the summer of 1857, William Golding let out his East Parade shop and set up a new photographic studio in York Place, Hastings. In a notice published in The Hastings & St Leonards' Times on 23rd August 1857, William Golding announced that he had "removed to more convenient premises known as No. 4 York Place".

William Golding's removal of his business to 4 York Place in July 1857 coincided with his marriage. On 18th July 1857, at the parish church in Hampton, Middlesex, William Thomas Golding married Ann Ingle, the 23 year old daughter of Sarah and George Ingle, who was then a fruiterer like William's late father and elder brother. Ann's father, George Ingle (c1813-1891) was originally from Melton Mowbray in Leicestershire, but by 1834, he was living in London, where he married Sarah Bilson (born c1807, Preston, Rutland). Ann Ingle, the eldest of 4 daughters, was born in the City of London around the time of her parents' marriage in 1834.

On 31st July 1857, William Golding offered to let out his old studio at 6 East Parade, Hastings to a photographic artist or any other interested tradesman. (See advertisement below). William Golding was still residing in the living quarters attached to the photographic studio, but was planning to move to a new address (possibly in York Place) in November 1857.

[ABOVE] A notice placed in the Hastings & St Leonards News on 31st July 1857 offering to let out William Golding's original photographic studio at 6 East Parade, Hastings, to another photographic artist or to any other interested party. When this advertisement appeared in July 1857, William Golding was still residing in the living quarters attached to the studio, but he was planning to move to a new address (possibly in York Place, Hastings) before November 1857. William Golding had already transferred his photographic business to No. 4 York Place, Hastings. (See the advertisement illustrated below).

[ABOVE] A notice placed by William Golding in the Hastings & St Leonards News on 30th October 1857 advising his customers that he had removed his "Photographic Establishment" from East Parade to No. 4 York Place, Hastings.

At his new studio in York Place, Hastings (premises which Golding had "fitted up in a manner expressly suited for the Photographic art") William Golding continued to produce "portraits taken on the newest and most approved principles", but was now also supplying "Stereoscopes and Stereoscopic Pictures", selling photographic apparatus and providing lessons in photography.

Some time in 1857, William Golding entered into a partnership with Anthony Vicat (1823-1888) - see panel below. The firm of Golding & Vicat established a photographic studio at No. 18 Wellington Place, Hastings, but it appears that Anthony Vicat managed the studio in Wellington Place and  William Golding continued to produce his own photographic portraits and provide stereoscopic pictures at what he dubbed as "W. Golding's Photographic Rooms".An advertisement which appeared in the 1858 edition of Osborne's "Stranger's Guide and Directory to Hastings and St Leonards" mentions both the branch studio at 18 Wellington Place, Hastings and "W. Golding's Photographic Rooms" at 6 East Parade, Hastings. Referring to the phenomenon of photography, William Golding declares "it is one of the noblest discoveries of modern times. By it, I am enabled to catch the smile of childhood or the engaging look of beloved ones. It matters not what the subject is; it is all the same to the pencil of light. These life like portraits are taken instantaneously not daubed or distorted by the pencil of the caricaturist - but life as it is. They are also divested of all unpleasant glare and may be seen in any light". The mention of "unpleasant glare" is a reference to the now obsolete daguerreotype, with its mirror-like surface and its elusive image which shifted in the light.

Between August 1857 and December 1858, William Golding was based at a photographic studio in York Place, opposite the road which led to Hastings Railway Station, while his business partner, the photographer Anthony Vicat operated from business premises at No. 18 Wellington Place in a parade of buildings situated between Hastings Castle and the junction of Cambridge Road and Robertson Street. ( It appears that the buildings in York Place were re-numbered at the end of 1857 and from January 1858, William Golding's studio address was given as No.3 York Place instead of No. 4.).

The business partnership between William Golding and Anthony Vicat came to an end on the last day of 1858. The firm of Golding & Vicat was "dissolved by mutual consent" on 31st December 1858. Anthony Vicat continued as a photographic artist at 18 Wellington Place, Hastings until at least November 1859, but William Golding eventually closed his York Place studio and returned to his shop at 6 East Parade, Hastings.

William Golding's Family

In 1858, William Golding's wife Ann had given birth to a son named Alfred Ingle Golding. Early in 1861, a second son, christened Joseph George Fred Golding, was born at William Golding's apartment in East Parade. [The birth of Joseph George Fred Golding was registered in Hastings during the 1st Quarter of 1861]. When the census was taken on 7th April 1861, William Golding and his family were residing at 6 East Parade, Hastings. William Golding is described on the census return as a twenty-eight year old "Photographic Artist". The household was completed by William's wife, Mrs Ann Golding (aged 26), Alfred Golding (aged 2), Joseph Golding, a two month old baby, and Jane Peters, a sixteen year old servant girl. At the end of the following year, there was a new addition to William Golding's family. A baby boy, named Willie John Golding, was born during the final months of 1862. [Although registered at birth during the 4th Quarter of 1862 as "Willie John Golding", in adult life, William Golding's third son preferred to be known as William. William Golding's second eldest son Joseph George Fred Golding later dropped his first name and was generally referred to as George Frederick Golding ]. The family was to be completed in 1865 by a daughter, Annie Golding, who was born after the Golding family had left Hastings. [The birth of Annie Golding was registered in the district of Lewisham during the 2nd Quarter of 1865].

William Golding's Final Years as a Photographic Artist in Hastings

In a public notice, dated 12th January 1859, Anthony Vicat had advised his customers that the firm of Golding & Vicat, "Photographists" of 18 Wellington Place and No. 6 East Parade had broken up and the partnership between him and William Golding had been dissolved, with "Mr Golding retiring from the business". However, William Golding had no intention of abandoning his photographic career. In January 1859, the young photographer had announced that "Photographic Likenesses" could be obtained at "W. Golding's New Photographic Establishment" at 3 York Place, Hastings, where "specimens of the art may be seen, combining a perfect Likeness with a vigorous and faithful expression."  By March 1859, William Golding was back at his old studio in East Parade, Hastings. In 1859, William Golding placed a notice in The Hastings & St Leonards Chronicle advising the public that had "just re-opened his Photographic Establishment at East Parade, Hastings", adding that he had "no connection with any other Establishment". A newspaper advertisement dated 4th March 1859, states that "W. Golding, Photographic Artist" was now producing "Portraits taken on glass and paper, in the most improved style" at 6 East Parade, Hastings. Another advertisement for his East Parade studio which appeared in The Hastings & St Leonards Chronicle on 6th July 1859, informed customers that a "Portrait in a Morocco (leather) case" could be obtained for the price of 2s 6d. At this date, William Golding would have been producing "collodion positive" or "ambrotype" portraits, protected under glass in a metal frame and presented in a velvet-lined, leather-bound display case.

When William Golding first purchased the photographic studio in Hasting's East Parade in the Summer of 1854, he faced little competition. In August 1854, William Golding was one of three daguerreotype artists who had portrait rooms in the neighbourhood. Golding's two rivals were Frederick Brookes of Robertson Street, Hastings and Mr D. Gates of 13 East Ascent, St Leonards-on-Sea. When the 1861 census was taken there were nearly a dozen professional photographers residing in Hastings & St Leonards-on-Sea. It appears that William Golding was still mainly producing "portraits on glass and paper", yet, by the end of the year, his competitors were starting to produce small, cheap, albumen prints pasted on mounts the size of visiting cards. These small photographic portraits came to be known as cartes-de-visite and had become particularly popular after John Jabez Edwin Mayall had produced a series of cdv portraits featuring Queen Victoria and the Royal Family in 1860.

It seems that William Golding found it difficult to adapt to the new trends in photography. While Golding was producing cased "collodion positive" portraits on glass, which retailed at 2s 6d, his competitors were producing a set of 10 carte-de-visite portraits for 10s 6d. William Golding might have had plans to convert his East Parade studio into a fully equipped carte-de-visite studio, but he clearly did not have the capital to invest in the specially designed multi-lens cameras and the studio paraphernalia (furniture, drapes, fake classical columns, plinths and balustrades painted backdrops, etc.) which were essential for a successful carte-de-visite studio. William Golding struggled to make his photography business pay and, in January 1862, he was declared bankrupt.

A public notice, published in The Hastings & St Leonards News on 21st February 1862, reported that William Thomas Golding, of No. 6 East Parade, Hastings, "a Photographic Artist, trading as William Golding" had been "adjudged bankrupt" on 22nd January 1862.

[ABOVE] A public notice published in The London Gazette on 21st February 1862, stating that  William Thomas Golding, Photographic Artist of No. 6 East Parade, Hastings, who was declared bankrupt on 22nd January 1862, was due to appear at Hastings Town Hall in front of a Judge of the County Court of Sussex on 10th March 1862. A further notice in The London Gazette (published on 14th March 1862) reported that at the court hearing held on 10th March, William Thomas Golding, "trading as William Golding" was adjudged to be "entitled to his Discharge under the provisions of the Bankruptcy Act, 1861".

William Golding's "old-established" photographic studio at No. 6 East Parade, Hastings, was put up to let. Golding's former photographic business was taken on by Richard Hodson (born c1832, Preston, Lancashire), a thirty-year old cabinet maker who had set himself up as a photographic artist.

After William Golding was discharged from his bankruptcy in April 1862, he established a new photographic portrait studio at 5 Coburg Place, Hastings (situated south of St Clement;s Caves and now known as Cobourg Place). Even though he was in business in 1862 when "cartomania" broke out, no carte-de-visite portrait by William Golding has yet been discovered. The 1862 edition of Kelly's Directory of Sussex lists William Golding as a "Photographic Artist" at 5 Coburg Place, Hastings, but he is not mentioned in subsequent editions and it has been established that, by 1865, Golding had left Hastings to set up a furniture upholstery business in Lewisham, Kent.

William Thomas Golding - Furniture Upholsterer in Kent

Probably because of the failure of his photographic business in Hastings, William Golding and his family left the Sussex seaside town and moved to Lewisham in Kent. We know that William Golding and his wife Ann had left Sussex by the Spring of 1865, as their youngest daughter Annie Golding was born in Lewisham during the 2nd Quarter of 1865.
 
[ABOVE LEFT] Upholsterers at work, as shown in an 18th century illustration. [ABOVE RIGHT] Examples of late Victorian furniture upholstery, as pictured in a furniture pattern book published in 1880.

When the census was taken on 2nd April 1871, William Golding was recorded in the Lee district of Lewisham in Kent. William Golding was living at 16 St Stephen's Road, Lee, Lewisham, Kent, with his four children - Alfred (aged 13), [Joseph] George (aged 11), William [Willie John] (aged 9) and Annie (aged 6). Strangely, William's wife Mrs Ann Golding (formerly Ingle) is not recorded at the family home at the time of the 1871 census and she is also absent from the household when the next census was taken 10 years later. Mrs Ann Golding was presumably still alive in 1881, as William Golding declares on the census return, under the heading "Marital Status", that he was married and not a widower. One possibility is that Ann had left the family home and the couple were separated following a breakdown in their marriage. Another theory is that Ann had been hospitalised. [The 1881 census records a middle-aged woman named "Ann Golding" as a patient at the Metropolitan District Asylum in Caterham, Surrey (now known as Caterham Dene Mental Hospital). This particular patient gives her age as "48", but unfortunately no birthplace is given and there are no further details that could confirm the identification of this unfortunate woman].

When the 1881 census was taken, William Golding was living at 24 The Parade, Lee High Road, Lee Lewisham, Kent. Residing with William Golding was his twenty-one year old son, George Golding (birth registered in 1861 as "Joseph George Fred Golding") and his teenage daughter Annie Golding (who had been born in Lewisham around 1865). Both William Golding and his son George were working as furniture upholsterers. Another of William's sons, twenty-two year old Alfred Ingle Golding, was working as a carpenter and was staying with his grandparents, George and Sarah Ingle, at their home in Watts Yard in South West London. At this time, William John Golding, William Golding's youngest son, was serving his apprenticeship as a seaman on board the "Eliza Ann", then anchored at the riverside town of Erith in Kent.( Karen Archer notes that Willie John Golding served on board the "Eliza Jane of Whitby" and later became a successful ship's captain - see notes under Acknowledgements).

[ABOVE] William Golding listed as an upholsterer at 24 The Parade , High Road, Lee in the 1882 edition Kelly's Directory of Kent.

William Thomas Golding later worked as a "Master Upholsterer" at 12 Royal Parade, Blackheath, Kent. In1890, William Golding became seriously ill and was admitted to St. John's Hospital in Lewisham. On 13th December,1890, at St John's Hospital, William Thomas Golding died from an "Epithelioma (malignant tumour) of the Bladder." The death certificate describes William Thomas Golding as a "Master Upholsterer of 12 Royal Parade, Blackheath" and gives his age at death as 57. [ The ages recorded on earlier census returns suggests that William Golding was closer to 59 at the time of his death, yet two of his children, Alfred Ingle Golding and Annie Ingle Golding, maintained he was only 52 years of age when he passed away ].

After the death of William Golding, his son Alfred Ingle Golding took over the running of the upholstery business at 12 Royal Parade, Blackheath. (It appears that William Golding's second son, Joseph George Frederick Golding, who was an upholsterer by trade and had previously assisted his father in the business, had died in 1885 at the age of 24). Alfred Ingle Golding, who was William Golding's eldest son, died in 1894 at the age of 36. [The death of Alfred Ingle Golding was registered in Chelsea during the First Quarter of 1894].
 
Thanks to Karen Archer, a great, great grand-daughter of William Golding, for providing  family history information on the Golding Family of Hastings.

Joseph Golding senior - Fruiterer in Hastings

[ABOVE] Joseph Golding senior listed as a fruiterer at 20 Hill Street, Hastings in Pigot's Provincial Commercial Directory of Sussex issued for the years 1832-1834. [ABOVE] Joseph Golding senior listed as a fruiterer at 42 1/2 High Street, Hastings in the 1840 edition Pigot's Directory of Hastings. Golding was also the proprietor of the St. Clement's Caves in Hastings (see below)

Joseph Golding senior - Proprietor of St Clement's Caves

[LEFT & ABOVE] The St Clement's Caves of Hastings as described in Arthur Freelings "Picturesque Excursions" (1842). To view the caves, visitors had to apply to Joseph Golding, greengrocer of High Street, Hastings.
   

Joseph Golding junior - Fruiterer and Proprietor of St Clement's Caves

[ABOVE] An advertisement for Joseph Golding junior, "Foreign Fruiterer, Seedsman and Greengrocer", which was placed in Mary Matilda Howard's 1855 handbook "Hastings - Past and Present" to advise customers that Joseph Golding was removing his business from 16 George Street, Hastings, to No. 12 Robertson Street, Hastings.

[ABOVE] St. Clement's Caves, a woodcut in Parson's Illustrated Guide to Hastings and St. Leonards (1854).

[ABOVE] St. Clement's Caves, as described in "Osborne's Strangers' Guide and Directory to Hastings & St Leonards for 1854". The Mr Golding of 16 George Street, Hastings referred to in this extract was Joseph Golding junior, who had inherited his father's fruiterers and greengrocery business together with the lease on St. Clement's Caves when Joseph Golding senior died in 1844.

The Golding Family in Hastings (1859)

[ABOVE] Mrs Ann Golding, presumably the widow of Joseph Golding senior, listed as a fruiterer & greengrocer at 18 & 19 George Street, Hastings in the 1859 edition of Kelly's Post Office Directory . Mrs Golding's eldest son, Joseph Golding junior, previously had a greengrocery store at 16 George Street, but in 1855 he removed his business to 12 Robertson Street, Hastings. When this trade directory was compiled, William Golding, another of Mrs Golding's sons, was working as a "photographic artist" at 6 East Parade, Hastings.

The Golding Family in Hastings (1866)

[ABOVE] Mrs Ann Golding, presumably the widow of Joseph Golding senior, listed at 11 Croft Road and described as the proprietor of St. Clement's Caves in the 1866 edition of the Post Office Directory of Sussex. Mrs Golding's eldest son, Joseph Golding junior was still earning his living as a "fruiterer & seedsman" at 12 Robertson Street, Hastings , but his younger brother William Golding had abandoned his photographic career and was working as a furniture upholsterer in Lewisham, Kent.

William  Golding - Photographic Artist in Hastings

[ABOVE] An advertisement for William Golding's photographic portrait studio at 6 East Parade, Hastings, which was published in the Hastings & St Leonards News on 25th August 1854. William Golding, a twenty-three year old upholsterer, had purchased Richard Beauford's original daguerreotype gallery from the artist Jacob Henry Connop (1834-1870) earlier that summer.

[ABOVE] A daguerreotype portrait dating from the 1850s, the period in which William Thomas Golding was taking photographic likenesses at his studio in East Parade, Hastings. A "daguerreotype" (a  type of photograph invented and perfected by Louis Jacques Daguerre in 1839) was a photographic image fixed on a sheet of silvered copper. There was no separate negative produced by the daguerreotype process and so each photographic image was unique. In January 1855, William Golding was charging 2s 6d for a small sized daguerreotype portrait.  A daguerreotype portrait in a velvet-lined leather case, such as the one illustrated above, would cost extra. ( In 1854, Golding's predecessor at the East Parade studio had charged 5s 6d for a small sized daguerreotype portrait in a frame and 7s 6d for the same portrait in a "handsome morocco case").

[ABOVE] An advertisement for William Golding's Photographic Establishment at No. 6 East Parade, Hastings, which was published in the Hastings & St Leonards News on 8th August 1856. In addition to taking photographic likenesses, William Golding also supplied stereoscopic photographs and stereoscopes - the instruments that allowed viewers to combine two separate images to form a three-dimensional picture.

[ABOVE] A stereoscopic photograph of the Dripping Well waterfall at Fairlight Glen, a beauty spot situated on the outskirts of Hastings. William Thomas Golding produced similar stereoscopic views which he sold at his business premises in East Parade, Hastings.

[ABOVE] William Golding recorded as a "photographic artist" at 3 York Place, Hastings in Melville's Directory of Sussex published in 1858. William Golding vacated his studio in East Parade in July 1857 and transferred his photographic business to No. 4 York Place in the centre of Hastings. It appears that the buildings in York Place were re-numbered at the end of 1857 because, from January 1858, William Golding's newspaper advertisements give an address of No. 3 York Place.

[LEFT & ABOVE] Photographic portraits on glass ("collodion positives") dating from around 1860.

[ABOVE] An advertisement for William Golding, Photographic Artist of 6 East Parade, Hastings, which was published in the Hastings & St Leonards News on 14th September 1860. By this date, William Golding was employing Frederick Scott Archer's "wet collodion" process to create photographic portraits on paper and glass ("collodion positives"). Two "collodion positive" portraits on glass are illustrated above. After a period as a photographer in York Place, Hastings, William Golding returned to his original studio at 6 East Parade, Hastings, where he remained until he was declared bankrupt in January 1862. (See below).
[ABOVE] A public notice dated 10th March 1862 and published in the local press on 14th March 1862, announcing the discharge from bankruptcy of William Thomas Golding, formerly trading as a "Photographic Artist" under the name of "William Golding" at 6 East Parade, Hastings.
[ABOVE] William Golding recorded as a "photographic artist" at 5 Coburg Place, Hastings in the 1862 edition of Kelly's Directory of Sussex. William Golding had sold his original studio in East Parade to Richard Hodson after his discharge from bankruptcy in April 1862. Richard Hodson is listed as a photographic artist at 6 East Parade, Hastings, in the Trades section of Kelly's Directory of Sussex. (See extract from the Photographic Artists listing, above).

[ABOVE] A photographic print on paper dating from around 1860. An albumen print made from a glass negative using the "wet collodion" process.
[ABOVE] An early carte-de-visite portrait of an unknown woman (c1860) [ABOVE] An early carte-de-visite portrait of an unknown gentleman (c1860)
[ABOVE] A carte-de-visite portrait of a teenage girl, photographed at the Hastings studio of Ayles & Bonniwell at Trinity House, Robertson Street (c1862) [ABOVE] A carte-de-visite portrait of a woman posing by a chair, photographed Joseph Merrralls of 2 Robertson Street, Hastings (c1862).

[ABOVE] Trade plates of Hastings photographic studios producing carte-de-visite portraits in 1862.

 

Types of Photographs taken by William Golding at his Studios in Hastings between 1854 and 1862

[ABOVE LEFT] A daguerreotype artist with his camera, pictured in an engraving produced around 1854.
[ABOVE RIGHT] A daguerreotype portrait housed in a folding leather case, complete with metal clasps. The photographic image was fixed onto a silvered copper plate by a complicated chemical process. The resulting image could be badly affected by environmental conditions and the surface of the photograph could deteriorate if it was exposed to bright sunlight, moisture, dust etc. To protect the delicate photographic image, a daguerreotype portrait was usually housed in a hinged, folding case made of wood and leather. The vulnerable daguerreotype portrait was usually covered by a sheet of glass and a brass matte (mat) and, once inserted into the leather-covered, wooden case, had the added protection of a plush velvet pad. The illustrated daguerreotype is housed in a leather-bound case with a rich green trim and an embossed green velvet pad. The daguerreotype portrait itself is protected by glass and an arched brass matte (mat).
[ABOVE LEFT] A woodcut illustration depicting a photographic artist in his studio (c1854). The illustration shows the photographer uncapping the lens of his camera and timing the exposure with his watch. (In 1855, William Golding was claiming that his portraits were "taken in a second"). Early photographic studios were usually located on the top floor of buildings and were equipped with large windows, skylights and glass roofs to make the most of the available light.
[ABOVE RIGHT] A 'collodion positive' (or ambrotype) portrait on glass, housed in a morocco leather case. The 'collodion positive' was an inexpensive substitute for the daguerreotype portrait. The image on glass was fragile and still vulnerable to the elements, so, like the daguerreotype, it was usually protected by metal fittings and either inserted into a handsome presentation case or placed inside an elaborate frame. Cheaper versions of the 'collodion positive' portrait were available in "imitation leather" cases made from wood, paper and card. In the cheaper versions, the brass mattes (mats) were replaced by mats made from 'pinchbeck' metal - a 'gold-like' alloy of copper and zinc. The soft, pinchbeck metal could be pressed and rolled and embossed with elaborate patterns. (See the 'collodion positive' portrait of the man in the light-coloured coat illustrated top-right, opposite).
TYPICAL PRICES 1854-1856: Small daguerreotype in a frame - 5s 6d, Small daguerreotype in a leather case- 7s 6d. (1854). Hand-coloured daguerreotypes 5 shillings extra. Golding's small daguerreotype portraits - 2s 6d (1855). Collodion positive portrait on glass; 1s 6d in a frame, 2s 6d in a case (1856). Photographic portraits from 1 shilling to 21 shillings (1856) *

[ABOVE] A daguerreotype portrait dating from around 1854, the year that William Golding commenced his photographic career in Hastings. This image has been fixed onto a silvered copper plate using Daguerre's photographic process. The daguerreotype had a "mirror-like" surface and to be viewed the case had to be tilted in the hand so that the image could shift from negative to positive. [ABOVE] A 'collodion positive' portrait on glass, photographed around 1856, when William Golding was taking portraits "upon the newest and most approved principles". By the mid-1850s, cheap  'collodion positive' portraits had superseded the more expensive daguerreotypes. This portrait has been mounted in a  'pinchbeck' metal frame, incorporating an embossed gilt mat.

[ABOVE] A hand-coloured photograph on glass depicting a girl and a young boy. This portrait was produced by bleaching or underexposing the collodion glass negative and placing it on a black background, so that the photograph took on the appearance of a positive image. These 'collodion positive' portraits were called ambrotypes in North America. This 'collodion positive' portrait is protected by an arched brass matte (mat). Both daguerreotypes and  'collodion positive' portraits could be hand-coloured at an extra cost. Jacob Connop, William Golding's predecessor, charged an additional 5 shillings to colour his photographic portraits.

[ABOVE] A portrait of a man, photographed in the late 1850s using Frederick Scott Archer's 'wet collodion' process. A glass negative has been used to produce a photographic print on paper. This sepia portrait is called an albumen print. The coating on the photographic paper consisted of light-sensitive silver salts suspended in albumen (egg-white). The original collodion glass negative could also be transformed into a 'collodion positive' portrait (see right). William Golding's publicity in the late 1850s refer to "Portraits taken on glass and paper".
*A NOTE ON PRICES & INCOMES. In 1855, an agricultural labourer's weekly wage  was around 7 shillings, a semi-skilled urban worker earned around 20 shillings a week, a clerk received, on average, around 30 shillings a week. A medical doctor had an annual  income of  around 1,000 (pounds sterling) and a barrister could expect to earn 5,000 (pounds sterling) a year.

 

William Golding's Photographic Studios in Hastings

[ABOVE] A photograph taken from the beach in 1900, showing the small houses on East Parade, Hastings, where Richard Beauford established the town's first permanent photographic portrait studio in August 1850. William Golding, a twenty-two year old upholsterer,  purchased Richard Beauford's original daguerreotype gallery from the artist Jacob Henry Connop (1834-1870) in August 1854. The house at No. 6 East Parade, Hastings served as a photographic studio from 1850 until the end of 1862. Number 6, East Parade, a small, three-storey house faced with wooden slats, can be seen second from the left in this photograph, which was taken nearly 40 years after Golding had left Hastings and moved to Lewisham. The building at No. 6 East Parade became a beer-house called The Forester's Arms in the mid 1860s. In recent years it has served as a small restaurant.

[ABOVE] A notice placed in the Hastings & St Leonards News on 31st July 1857 offering to let out William Golding's original photographic studio at 6 East Parade, Hastings. When this advertisement appeared in July 1857, William Golding was setting up a new photographic studio at No. 4 York Place, Hastings.

[ABOVE] A notice placed in the Hastings & St Leonards News on 28th November 1862 offering to let out the business premises at No. 6  East Parade, Hastings to "Photographers & Others".

No. 6, East Parade, Hastings

The small three-storey building at No. 6, East Parade, Hastings, housed a photographic studio for about a dozen years. Richard Beauford (whose real name was Richard Brothers Finlayson) established a daguerreotype establishment at No. 6, East Parade, Hastings, in August 1850. Richard Beauford vacated the studio in July 1853. Richard Beauford was succeeded by the firm of White & Connop and, when this partnership ended, the building in East Parade was used as a Daguerreotype Portrait Gallery by one of the partners, Jacob Henry Connop. In August 1854, the East Parade photographic studio passed to William Thomas Golding, a twenty-two year old upholsterer. William Golding worked as a photographic artist in this building until July 1857. At the  end of July 1857, the shop at 6 East Parade was put up to let. An advertisement placed in the Hastings & St Leonards News of 31st July 1857 announced "Shop to Let, at 6 East Parade, Hastings, in which the business of a Photographic Artist has been carried on for some years". After a period working in partnership with Anthony Vicat and a couple of years taking likenesses at a photographic studio in York Place, Hastings, William Golding returned to No. 6 East Parade, Hastings, until his bankruptcy in January 1862. William Golding eventually moved to 5 Coburg Place, Hastings and the business premises at 6 East Parade was let out to Richard Hodson, who used the building as a photographic portrait studio until the end of 1862. This was the last time that No 6 East Parade was used as a photographic studio.

Between 1855 and 1858, the building at No. 6, East Parade, Hastings, had been run as a lodging house by John Fowle. After 1862, No. 6, East Parade was used as a beer-house.

No. 3 & No. 4 York Place and 18 Wellington Place, Hastings

Around August 1857, William Golding set up a new studio at No. 4 York Place, Hastings and entered into a business partnership with Anthony Vicat. The firm of Golding & Vicat was based at 18 Wellington Place, Hastings. After the partnership of Golding & Vicat was dissolved in December 1858, William Golding continued to take photographic portraits at No. 3 York Buildings. In the Summer of 1859, William Golding returned to No.6, East Parade, Hastings.

5 Coburg Place,  Hastings

It appears that after William Golding was discharged from his bankruptcy in March 1862, he set himself up as a photographer in Cobourg Place. William Golding is listed as a photographic artist at 5 Coburg Place (Cobourg Place) in a Sussex Trade Directory published in 1862.

William Golding's Photographic Studios in Hastings

STUDIO PROPRIETOR

STUDIO ADDRESS

DATES ACTIVE

William Golding 6 East Parade, Hastings

 August 1854 - July 1857

William Golding 4 York Place, Hastings

August 1857 - January 1858

Golding & Vicat

18 Wellington Place, Hastings

July 1857 - 31st Dec.1858

William Golding 3 York Place, Hastings

January 1858 - Feb 1859

William Golding 6 East Parade, Hastings

March 1859 - January 1862

William Golding 5 Coburg Place, Hastings April 1862 - August 1862 (?)

[ABOVE] A table detailing the various photographic studios that William Golding was associated with between 1854 and 1862. William Golding's original photographic studio at No. 6  East Parade, Hastings was passed to Richard Hodson (born c1832, Preston, Lancashire) early in 1862. Richard Hodson was not a successful photographer and by the end of 1862 he had returned to his original trade of cabinet making. 

Locations of William Golding's Photographic Studios in Hastings

[ABOVE] A modern map of Hastings showing the approximate locations of William Golding's photographic studios at 6 East Parade, 3 & 4 York Place, and 5 Coburg (Cobourg) Place. Situated north of Cobourg Place are the St. Clement's Caves, the tourist attraction  which Joseph Golding, William Golding's father, developed and managed during the 1830s and early 1840s. The approximate location of the  Golding & Vicat  studio at 18 Wellington Place, which was taken over by Anthony Vicat in January 1859, is marked by a purple dot. [ABOVE] An old map of the centre of Hastings showing the possible locations of William Golding's photographic studio in York Place (marked in yellow) and the Golding & Vicat  studio at 18 Wellington Place. As York Place no longer exists and cannot be found on the available old maps of Hastings, it is difficult to be certain about  its location. William Golding's publicity for his York Place studio, published in 1857, states that No. 4 York Place was "nearly opposite the road to the Railway Station."
 

Golding & Vicat - Photographic Artists in Hastings between 1857 and 1858

[ABOVE] A photograph taken in 1868 showing the Albert Memorial in Hastings, with York Buildings on the left and Wellington Place on the right. At the extreme left of the picture is James Hayter's "York Tavern" in York Buildings, Hastings. The "York Tavern" is marked with the symbol "P. H." to the west of York Buildings and Wellington Place on the map below.

[ABOVE] A detail from an old map of Hastings dating from 1910 which shows the location of Wellington Place where Anthony Vicat worked as a photographer between 1858 and 1859. 
A. VICAT - Photographic Artist, 18 Wellington Place, Hastings. Portrait Rooms open from '9 til dusk. A large selection of superior stereoscopic slides.
[ABOVE] An advertisement for Anthony Vicat , Photographic Artist, of 18 Wellington Place, Hasting, placed in The Hastings & St Leonards Chronicle on 6th July 1859.

[ABOVE] Anthony Vicat recorded as a "photographic artist" at 18 Wellington Place, Hastings in Kelly's Post Office Sussex Directory published in 1859.
Anthony Vicat (1823-1888) - Photographic Artist in Hastings between 1857 & 1859

Anthony Vicat was the second son of Ann and James Vicat (c1788-1871), a successful linen draper who later became a farmer and landowner in Eltham, Kent. Anthony Vicat was born at Blackfriars, London, in 1823 and was baptised at Christ Church in Southwark on 29th June 1823. At the time of Anthony's birth, his father James Vicat was a linen draper in Blackfriars. In a London trade directory published in 1841, James Vicat is listed as a "linen draper" at 49 Blackfriars Road, London. By 1829, James Vicat and his family were living in Eltham, Kent. It appears that James Vicat sold his drapery business in London and used the funds from the sale to purchase land in Eltham.

James Vicat became a substantial landowner in Eltham. In 1851, James Vicat is recorded as a farmer at Southwood Farm, Eltham and a directory published in 1855 refers to Anthony's father as "James Vicat, esquire, of Southwood House, Eltham".

Anthony Vicat was one of at least eleven children born to Ann and James Vicat. Anthony Vicat's siblings included James Vicat junior (1822-1888), Richard Nelson Vicat (1825-1891), Thomas Vicat (c1825 -1891), Robert Vicat (1827- ? ), Cicely Ann Nelson Vicat (1828-1898), Elizabeth Jane Vicat (1830-1872), Elizabeth Jane Vicat (1830-1872), John Vicat (1832- 1854), Horatio Nelson Vicat (1835-1893), Ann Nelson Vicat (1836-1878), Eleanor Palmer Vicat (1838-1881) and Emily Alice Vicat (1841-1869). The Vicat Family clearly had connections with Hastings and probably owned property in this seaside town. It is probably significant that James Vicat junior, Elizabeth Jane Vicat, Ann Nelson Vicat and
Emily Alice Vicat all ended their lives in Hastings.

[ABOVE] The trade plate of Anthony Vicat, Photographist of 18 Wellington Place, Hastings. When the business partnership between William Golding and Anthony Vicat was dissolved by mutual consent on 31st December 1858, Vicat agreed to settle "all debts due to and owing by the said firm" (Golding & Vicat). Anthony Vicat continued to take photographs under his own name until at least November 1859.

[ABOVE] A notice published in The Hastings & St Leonards News on Friday, 14th January 1859, announcing the dissolution of the business partnership between William Golding and Anthony Vicat. The firm of Golding & Vicat was dissolved by mutual consent on 31st December 1858,

By 1857, Anthony Vicat was in Hastings, where he entered into a business partnership with William Thomas Golding to form the firm of Golding & Vicat. It appears that William Golding operated from his studio in York Place, while Anthony Vicat managed the Golding & Vicat studio at 18 Wellington Place, Hastings. In addition to photographic portraits, Anthony Vicat is known to have produced stereoscopic views of Hastings and St Leonards.

The firm of Golding & Vicat was dissolved by "mutual consent" on 31st December 1858. In a public notice, dated 12th January 1859, Anthony Vicat advised his customers that the firm of Golding & Vicat, "Photographists of 18 Wellington Place and No. 6 East Parade" had broken up and the partnership between him and William Golding had been dissolved, adding that the photographic business would be continued by himself alone and would be "carried on at 18 Wellington Place only". A small advertisement placed by Anthony Vicat in The Hastings & St Leonards Chronicle on 6th July 1859 simply stated " A. VICAT - Photographic Artist, 18 Wellington Place, Hastings. Portrait Rooms open from '9 til dusk. A large selection of superior stereoscopic slides."

Anthony Vicat continued as a photographic artist at 18 Wellington Place, Hastings until at least November 1859. The following year, Anthony Vicat returned to live with his father at Southwood House in Eltham, Kent. In the 1861 census, Anthony Vicat is shown residing with his father and siblings at Southwood House, Bexley Road, Eltham, Kent and is described on the census return as a "Photographic Printer". When the census was taken ten years later, Anthony Vicat was still living with father at Southwood House, Eltham. On the 1871 census return, Anthony Vicat is recorded as a forty-seven year old "Photographer".

Anthony Vicat pursued a photographic career up until 1871, the year his father died. After the death of  James Vicat in 1871, Anthony Vicat probably had the funds to invest in various businesses. When the census was taken in 1881, Anthony Vicat informed the census enumerator that his income stemmed solely from "Interest from Dividends".

In 1875, at the age of 52, Anthony Vicat married Elizabeth Emily Boutellier, a woman in her early twenties (Elizabeth Emily Boutellier was born in Chelsea in 1853). In 1879, Mrs Elizabeth Vicat gave birth to John Nelson Vicat in Battersea, London. (The birth of John Nelson Vicat was registered in the district of Wandsworth during the 2nd Quarter of 1879).

At the time of the 1881 census, Mrs Elizabeth Vicat was living at 6 Falcon Market, Falcon Lane, Battersea, London, with her two year old son. Anthony Vicat is recorded in the 1881 census as residing with his unmarried brother, Richard Nelson Vicat (1825-1891) at Laurel House, Broderick Road, Upper Tooting, Wandsworth. Both Anthony and his brother declare on the 1881 census return that they were living on the "Interest from Dividends".

Anthony Vicat was involved in a series of legal disputes at the end of his life. (1882, Gardener v Anthony Vicat, et al ; 1888, Chelsea Water Works Co. v Anthony Vicat )

Anthony Vicat died in 1888, aged 65. [The death of Anthony Vicat was registered in the district of Wandsworth during the 1st Quarter of 1888]. Anthony's widow Mrs Elizabeth Emily Vicat died in Brighton in 1899. Her age at death is given as 45.

John Nelson Vicat, Anthony Vicat's only son, married in Brentford during the 1st Quarter of 1908.

 

Stereoscopic View by Anthony Vicat of 18 Wellington Place, Hastings

[ABOVE] A detail from Anthony Vicat's stereoscopic photograph of the South Saxon Hotel on Grand Parade in St Leonards-on-Sea. (1859). In July 1859, Vicat advertised his "large selection of superior stereoscopic slides" [ABOVE] A stereoscopic view of the South Saxon Hotel, Grand Parade, St Leonards-on-Sea, photographed by Anthony Vicat of 18 Wellington Place, Hastings (1859). This stereoscopic photograph almost certainly dates from 1859, the year that Anthony Vicat took control of Golding & Vicat's former studio in Wellington Place. On the reverse of this stereoscopic slide is Anthony Vicat's green & white trade mark label.
 

The Children of William Thomas Golding

During their marriage, William Thomas Golding and his wife Ann Ingle produced at least four children - Alfred Ingle, Joseph George Frederick, William John and Annie.

In 1858, William Golding's wife Ann had given birth to their first child, a son named Alfred Ingle Golding. Early in 1861, a second son, christened Joseph George Fred Golding, was born at William Golding's apartment in East Parade. [The birth of Joseph George Fred Golding was registered in Hastings during the 1st Quarter of 1861]. When the census was taken on 7th April 1861, William Golding and his family were residing at 6 East Parade, Hastings. William Golding is described on the census return as a twenty-eight year old "Photographic Artist". The household was completed by William's wife, Mrs Ann Golding (aged 26), Alfred Golding (aged 2), Joseph Golding, a two month old baby, and Jane Peters, a sixteen year old servant girl. At the end of the following year, there was a new addition to William Golding's family. A baby boy, named Willie John Golding, was born during the final months of 1862. [Although registered at birth during the 4th Quarter of 1862 as "Willie John Golding", in adult life, William Golding's third son preferred to be known as William. William Golding's second eldest son Joseph George Fred Golding later dropped his first name and was generally referred to as George Frederick Golding ]. The family was to be completed in 1865 by a daughter, Annie Golding, who was born after the Golding family had left Hastings. [The birth of Annie Golding was registered in the district of Lewisham during the 2nd Quarter of 1865].

At the time of the 1881 census, 18 year old William John Golding, William Golding's youngest son, was serving his apprenticeship as a seaman on board the "Eliza Ann", then anchored at the riverside town of Erith in Kent.( Karen Archer notes that Willie John Golding served on board the "Eliza Jane of Whitby" and later became a successful ship's captain. [ See the picture caption on the right and the notes under Acknowledgements ]

[ABOVE] A portrait believed to be a Memorial Cabinet Portrait of the early Hastings photographer William Thomas Golding (c1832-1890). This photograph was found in a family photograph album which belonged to Annie Golding (Mrs Annie Steel), William Golding's grand-daughter. William Thomas Golding died on 13th December,1890, at St John's Hospital, Lewisham. Before his death in 1890, William Thomas Golding was working as a Master Upholsterer at 12 Royal Parade, Blackheath.

[PHOTO: Courtesy of Karen Archer]

[ABOVE] A portrait of Willie (William) John Golding (1862-1924), photographed on board ship in his naval uniform. Willie John Golding was born in Hastings in 1862, the third son of the Hastings photographer William Thomas Golding and Ann Ingle. As a teenager, Willie John Golding trained as a merchant seaman. When the 1881 census was taken, William John Golding was serving his apprenticeship as a seaman on board the vessel "Eliza Ann". In 1891, William John Golding married Ann Davis (born 1864, South Shields, Co. Durham). The 1901 census records William John Golding as a thirty-nine year old "Seaman" living with his wife and four children in South Shields, Co. Durham, his wife's home town. William John Golding was the father of at least five children - William Golding junior (born 1892, South Shields), George Peter Davis Golding (born 1894, South Shields),  Annie Golding (born 1897, South Shields), Elsie Golding (born 1900 - died 1901) and Alfred Golding (born 1903, South Shields). At the time of the 1911 census, Captain William Golding was away at sea, but his wife Ann and three of their children were residing at 42 Rosebery Avenue, South Shields. The couple's eldest son, 19 year old William Golding junior, was serving his apprenticeship with a Ships' Store Merchant.

William John Golding died in South Shields, Co. Durham, in 1924 at the age of 62. This photograph of Captain William John Golding was found in a family photograph album which belonged to Annie Golding (Mrs Annie Steel), William John Golding's daughter.

[PHOTO: Courtesy of Karen Archer]

 

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Karen Archer, a great, great grand-daughter of William Golding, for supplying family history information on the Golding Family of Hastings. Karen is descended from William (Willie) John Golding, William Golding's youngest son. William (Willie) John Golding, who was born in Hastings in 1862, was a mariner who settled in South Shields, a coastal town in North-East England. In 1891, William (Willie) John Golding married Ann Davis (born 1864, South Shields, Co. Durham). The couple produced four children - William (born 1892), George (born 1894), Annie (born 1897) and Elsie (born 1900 - died 1901). The surviving daughter Annie Golding (born 1897, South Shields) is Karen Archer's grandmother. Annie Golding, married Karen's grandfather, George William Steel, at the Parish Church of St Hilda, South Shields, in 1925.

Arthur Henry GOLDSACK (born 1872, Fairlight, Hastings, Sussex - died 1933, Hastings) - Photographer in St Leonards between 1899 and 1905

[ABOVE] A carte-de-visite portrait of young child sitting on a chair, photographed by Arthur Henry Goldsack at his Tivoli Studio in Hollington, St. Leonards-on-Sea. Arthur Goldsack's studio was attached to his home at 5 Tivoli Terrace, Battle Road, Hollington, St. Leonards-on-Sea.

Arthur H. Goldsack was born at Fairlight, near Hastings, Sussex, in 1872. [The birth of Arthur Henry Goldsack was registered in the district of Hastings during the 1st Quarter of 1872]. Arthur Henry Goldsack was the second eldest son of Sarah and Henry Goldsack, a coachman and gardener who was employed as a domestic servant at Ashbrooke Lodge in Hollington, St Leonards. Arthur's father and mother both originated from Kent; Henry Goldsack was born in St Margaret-at-Cliffe, near Dover, in 1848; Sarah Ann Bowles was born in Ashley, Kent, in 1844. Henry Goldsack and Sarah Ann Bowles married at Ashbourne in Kent in 1868.

After the birth of their first son, William James Goldsack at Margaret-at-Cliffe, Dover in 1868, Henry and Sarah Goldsack moved to Fairlight, near the Sussex seaside resort of Hastings, where Arthur Henry Goldsack was born early in 1872. The Goldsack family then settled in the Hollington district of St Leonards, where Arthur's younger siblings were born; Clara Anne Goldsack in 1875 and Albert John Goldsack in 1877. The 1881 census records thirty-six year old Mrs Sarah Goldsack and her four children - William (12), Arthur (9), Clara (6) and Albert (3) at 6 Clifton Terrace, Hollington, St Leonards. Mrs Sarah Goldsack's husband, Henry Goldsack, a coachman and gardener, was residing in the domestic servants quarters at Ashbrooke Lodge in Hollington. [ Ashbrooke Lodge was the residence of Reverend Daniel Ledsam (c1813-1904) ]

By 1899, Arthur Henry Goldsack had established a photographic studio at 5 Tivoli Terrace, Battle Road, Hollington, St Leonards. The 1901 census records twenty-nine year old Arthur H. Goldsack as a "Photographer, Stationer & Newsagent" at 5 Tivoli Terrace, Hollington. Sharing Arthur Goldsack's home was his thirty-five year old wife Florence. Arthur Henry Goldsack had married Florence Gardner (born 1866, Mildmay Park, Stoke Newington, London) earlier that year. [The marriage of  Arthur Henry Goldsack and Florence Gardner was registered in the Sussex district of Battle during the 1st Quarter of 1901]. Mrs Florence Goldsack gave birth to a daughter, Florence Muriel Goldsack, during the 1st Quarter of 1903.

Arthur Henry Goldsack operated as a photographer at 5 Tivoli Terrace, Hollington from 1899 to 1905. The 1903 edition of Pike's Directory of Hastings & St Leonards also lists A. H. Goldsack as a photographer with a studio at 9 King's Road, Hastings.

By the time the 1911 census was taken, Arthur Henry Goldsack had given up his career as a professional photographer and was working as a shop assistant in a provisions store. Arthur Henry Goldsack, his forty-five year old wife Florence and their eight year old daughter Florence Muriel Goldsack were residing at 43 Alma Terrace, St Leonards-on-Sea.

 Arthur Henry Goldsack died in Hastings in 1933 at the age of 61.

 

Benjamin GRAHAM & Co.

   
 

Charles S. GRAY (1865-1938) - Photographer in Hastings between 1886 and 1888

Charles Stanton Gray was born in Halstead, Essex during the 2nd Quarter of 1865, the second eldest son of Anna Mary Sewell (born c1830, Halstead) and Stanton Gray, a brewery owner and a member of an important  family of brewers, maltsters and corn merchants who operated businesses in the Essex towns of Chelmsford, Maldon and Halstead. Charles Gray's father, Stanton Gray (c1835-1917) was one of the sons of Charles Stanton Gray who built a brewery in Halstead, Essex, in 1858. (Charles Stanton Gray senior had founded a brewery in Chelmsford in 1828). In partnership with his brothers, Stanton Gray operated the family firm of C. S. Gray & Sons, brewers, maltsters and corn dealers. In 1875, Stanton Gray acquired the family brewery in Halstead, Essex. Stanton Gray and his family lived at Halstead in a magnificent 18th century building called The Red House. In 1876, Stanton Gray sold the Halstead Brewery to the brewer Thomas Francis Adams and retired with his family to the Sussex seaside town of Hastings.

The 1881 census records Stanton Gray as a forty-five year old "Retired Brewer", living with his wife and five children (together with three domestic servants) at 7 Charles Road, Hastings. Stanton Gray's second eldest son, Charles Stanton Gray, then aged 16, was still at school. Charles's older brother, Joseph Sewell Gray (born 1860, Halstead, Essex) was employed as a solicitor's clerk. Mary Gertrude Gray (born 1862, Halstead, Essex), Stanton Gray's eldest daughter, was eighteen years of age, but had no need to work. Charles Gray's two younger siblings, Sydney Gray (born 1866, Halstead, Essex) and Maude Ellen Gray (born 1872, Halstead, Essex) were both listed as scholars on the census return.

In 1886, when he was just twenty-two years of age, Charles Stanton Gray began his very brief photographic career. The trades section of the 1887 edition of Kelly's Directory of Sussex, lists Chas. S. Gray as a photographer at 104 Queen's Road, Hastings. Surviving carte-de-visite portraits by Charles S. Gray give his business address as St. Andrews Studio, 104 Queens Road, Hastings. The following year Charles S. Gray took over the photographic studio at 25 White Rock, Hastings, which was situated near the Pier on Hastings seafront.

After vacating the photographic studio at 25 White Rock, Hastings, the young photographer embarked on a new career path by taking holy orders. By 1895, Reverend Charles Stanton Gray had been appointed curate at St Matthew's Church, Stepney, "the third of seven curacies". At the time of the 1901 census, Reverend Charles Stanton Gray was a Church of England clergyman in the Sussex village of Icklesham. A decade later, Reverend Charles Stanton Gray was occupying the Rectory at Haselton in Gloucestershire. The 1911 census records forty-six year old Charles Stanton Gray as a "Clergyman in the Established Church".

Reverend Charles Stanton Gray eventually retired to Bournemouth, where he died on 31st August 1938, aged 73.

[ABOVE] A carte-de-visite portrait of an unknown man, photographed by Charles S. Gray at 25 White Rock Place, Hastings (c1887). Charles S. Gray had previously operated a photographic portrait studio at 104 Queen's Road, Hastings.
 

James Henry GREENER (1818-1876) - Photographic Artist in Hastings between 1858 and 1859

James Henry Greener was born in London, Middlesex, in 1818. James Henry Greener was a hairdresser by trade and by 1844 he was running his own hairdressing business at No. 1 Belmont Row, Wandsworth Road, Lambeth. In 1846, James Henry Greener married Sarah Turner (born c1824, Ellastone, Staffordshire). This union produced two children - Elizabeth Harrison Greener, who was born in Lambeth during the 2nd Quarter of 1847, and Albert Oliver Greener who was born in Lambeth in 1849.

In 1857, James Henry Greener established a photographic portrait studio at his hairdressing shop in Belmont Row, Wandsworth Road, Vauxhall, South London. After a year taking photographic likenesses at his shop in London, James Henry Greener moved down to the Sussex seaside resort of Hastings and set himself up as a photographic artist at 81 High Street. After less than a year working as a photographic artist at 81 High Street, Hastings, James Greener returned to his hairdressing shop in Vauxhall, South London.

James  Greener - Photographic Artist at No.1 Belmont Row, Vauxhall, London

[ABOVE] The trade plate of James Greener of No. 1 Belmont Row, Wandsworth Road, Vauxhall, London as printed on the reverse of a carte-de-visite portrait produced in 1863.

Between 1859 and 1863, James Henry Greener worked primarily as a hairdresser, perhaps taking photographic portraits at his shop in Belmont Row when he was not cutting hair. When the craze for carte-de-visite portraits was as its height, James Greener concentrated more on the photography side of his business. James Henry Greener is recorded as a professional photographer at No.1 Belmont Row, Wandsworth Road, Vauxhall, South London between 1863 and 1864.

Around 1864, James Greener was joined at his Vauxhall studio by a young photographer named George John Burghall (1845-1890), the son of Anne and Thomas Burghall of Chester. James Greener passed on the Belmont Row Studio to George Burghall when he left London in 1864.

By 1871,James Greener was living with his wife and two children in Kent. Around 1875, James Greener settled in Croydon, Surrey, establishing a photography business in Addiscombe Road, Croydon. After a year in Croydon, James Henry Greener died at the age of 57. [The death of James Henry Greener was registered in Croydon during the 2nd Quarter of 1876].

Albert Oliver Greener, James Greener's son, died in 1871 at the age of 21 in Poulton-le-Fylde, near the Lancashire seaside resort of Blackpool. Elizabeth Harrison Greener, James Greener's daughter, married Richard Edward Cobden in Bromley, Kent, in 1869. At the time of the 1881 census, Mrs Sarah Greener, James Greener's fifty-seven year old widow was living with her daughter and son-in-law, Mr and Mrs Richard Cobden, and their six children at Sompting in Sussex.

James Henry Greener, Photographic Artist in Hastings

[ABOVE] James Henry Greener recorded as a photographic artist at 81 High Street, Hastings, in the 1859 edition of the Post Office Sussex Directory.

James Henry Greener, Photographic Artist in London

[ABOVE] The trade plate of the photographer James H. Greener as shown on the reverse of a carte-de-visite portrait produced Greener's photographic studio at 1 Belmont Row, Wandsworth Road, Vauxhall, London (c1863 [ABOVE] A carte-de-visite portrait of a seated woman photographed by James H. Greener of 1 Belmont Row, Wandsworth Road, Vauxhall, London (c1863). In 1864, Greener was joined in his business by the young  photographer George Burghall (1845-1890)
       

[ABOVE] The reverse of a carte-de-visite portrait showing the trade plate of James Greener Photographer of No. 1 Belmont Row, Wandsworth Road, Vauxhall, London (c1863 [ABOVE] A carte-de-visite portrait of an unknown woman photographed by James Greener of No. 1 Belmont Row, Wandsworth Road, Vauxhall, London (c1863). [ABOVE] A carte-de-visite portrait of an elderly woman photographed by James Greener of No. 1 Belmont Row, Wandsworth Road, Vauxhall, London (c1863). [ABOVE] An outdoor portrait of a man and his dog, photographed by James Greener of Addiscombe Road, Croydon, Surrey (c1875). The photographer James Greener died  in Croydon in 1876, aged 57.
       

James GRIGGS (born 1837, Margate, Kent - died 1912, Dover, Kent) - Beach Photographer in Hastings during the 1890s

James Griggs was an itinerant photographer who took ferrotype ("tintype") portraits on the beaches of Kent and Sussex during the 1890s.

James Griggs was born in Margate, Kent, in 1837, the son of Martha Adams (born 1817) and William Griggs (1812-1851), a storehouse keeper and warehouseman of Margate. James's father, William Griggs was born in Ramsgate in 1812, but, after his marriage to Martha Adams around 1835, he settled in the neighbouring seaside town of Margate, where all nine of their children were born. James Griggs, William and Martha's first child, was born in 1837. [James Griggs was baptised at St John's Church, Margate, on 24th June 1837]. The 1851 census records William and Martha Griggs and their five children at Love Lane, Margate. At the time of the census, William Griggs was 38 years old and working as a warehouseman in Margate, but a few months later James Griggs' father was dead. (William Griggs was buried in the graveyard of Margate's St John's Church on 11th June 1851. In his will, William Griggs left everything he had "to his dear wife"). **

In his twenties, James Griggs was working as a "Grocer's Traveller". When the census was taken on 7th April 1861, James Griggs was earning his living travelling around South Yorkshire and is recorded in Kimberworth, a district on the outskirts of Rotherham. It was probably while travelling around Yorkshire that James Griggs met his wife Mary A. Griggs (born c1835, Yorkshire). The couple returned to James's home county of Kent, where they started a family - Sarah (born c1862), William James Griggs (born 1865, Margate), Mary (born c1867), Verona Martha (born 1868, Margate), George Michael Griggs (born c1873, Margate) and Maud Mary Griggs (born 1877, Ramsgate).

The 1881 census records the Griggs family at 4 Albert Road, Ramsgate. James Griggs' wife Mrs Mary A. Griggs and four of their children - William (16), Verona (13), George (8) and Maud (4) - are recorded at the Ramsgate address. The "Head of Household" is given as James Griggs, a 40 year old photographer originating from Margate in Kent. Interestingly, another Margate-born photographer named James Griggs is also recorded in Faversham, Kent. James Griggs, a "Photographer" described as a 47 year old married man (birthplace, Margate, Kent), is listed alongside a twenty-one year old, Irish-born photographer named Richard Kelley (born c1860, Queenstown, Ireland) lodging at a beer-house run by Joseph and Priscilla Bedwell at 23 West Street, Faversham. The question raised by the 1881 census returns is "were there two Margate-born photographers named James Griggs operating in Kent in April 1881? or was the itinerant photographer James Griggs recorded twice, once at his home in Ramsgate and again at the Faversham beer-house?"

James Griggs apparently earned his living as an itinerant photographer, specialising in beach photography. Griggs was mainly based in the Kent seaside towns of Margate and Ramsgate, but there is pictorial evidence that he occasionally ventured as far as the Sussex seaside resort of Hastings. A picture taken in the 1890s by the well-known amateur photographer George Woods of Hastings shows two couples having their portraits taken on the beach in front of Breeds Place, Hastings. In the background of the photograph is Mr Griggs's "ferrotype handcart" displaying samples of his "tintype portraits".

When the census was taken on 31st March 1901, James Griggs is described as a 63 year old "Confectioner" based in Sandwich, Kent, yet his eldest son, William Griggs is recorded as a thirty-six year old "Photographer" in his father's seaside town of Margate. James Griggs' son, William James Griggs, had been born in Margate, Kent, during the 3rd Quarter of 1865. In 1886,  William James Griggs had married Mary Morris Drury (born 1866, Ramsgate, Kent).  William James Griggs appears to have been an itinerant beach photographer like his father. William Griggs' eldest son, Ernest, had been born in Folkestone in 1889. William and Mary Griggs' daughter Mabel had been born in Hastings in 1893, which suggests that William Griggs, like his father James Griggs, also paid visits to the Sussex seaside resort with his photographic apparatus. James Griggs' youngest son, George Michael Griggs (born c1873, Margate) also worked as a photographer. In 1901, twenty-eight year old George Griggs was working as a photographer from his wife's home village of Hildenborough, near Sevenoaks. George Michael Griggs had married Minnie Mary Nye (born 1878, Hildenborough, Kent) in 1896.

In 1911, George Michael Griggs, James Griggs' youngest son, was working as a travelling photographer. The 1911 census records George Griggs, described on the return as a 40 year old "Photographer", staying at Sommerville, Jarvis Brook, Crowborough, in East Sussex, with his wife and five children - James (9), George (8), Florence (6), Minnie (4) and Maude Griggs (2). Little Minnie Griggs had been born in Tonbridge, Kent, in 1907; her younger sister Mauda Ada Griggs was delivered in Tunbridge Wells in 1909. James Griggs' eldest son, William James Griggs, was also still working as a photographer, but he was now living with his wife and six children in Dover, Kent. Staying at William Griggs' house at 52 Odo Road, Dover, was his seventy-four year old father, the former seaside photographer James Griggs. Although James Griggs is described as a married man rather than a widower, he appears to have moved in on his own with his son's family.

James Griggs, who worked as an itinerant photographer during the 1880s and 1890s, died at his son's home in Dover in 1912 at the age of 75.

[ABOVE] The beach photographer James Griggs taking a photograph of two couples on Hastings seafront. Mr Griggs' tintype handcart can be seen behind the posing couples. Mr Griggs' assistant, a bespectacled young man in a light-coloured cap (possibly David Dicker or one of James Grigg's sons), provides some shade with a white cloth. This photograph of James Griggs at work on the beach in front of Breeds Place, Hastings, was taken by the well-known amateur Hastings photographer George Woods (1852-1934).

PHOTO: Hastings Museum

 The Beach Ferrotype (Tintype) Photograph
A Ferrotype was a cheap photograph produced by the old  'collodion positive' process, but which employed thin sheets of iron instead of plates of glass. The images were captured on black or dark brown enamelled sheets of iron, yet were erroneously called "tintypes". In seaside towns in the south of England, such as Hastings, beach photographers carried portable 'dark rooms' on little handcarts, which they trundled over the beach. A number of beach photographers  produced ferrotype portraits ("tintypes") on a "while you wait" basis. The ferrotype process was particularly suitable for producing "instant portraits". Many of the beach photographer's customers were "day trippers" and so it was important that the photographic portrait could be developed on the spot.

The "tintype" portrait was ideal for beach photography, in that it was cheap, fast to produce and processed on a durable metal base. Tintype portraits were sold for as little as 6d each, being the cheapest format of photographic portrait available.

[LEFT] A  ferrotype ("tintype") produced by a beach photographer in the 1890s.

The Grosvenor Studio (c1890)

There had been a photographic portrait studio at 22 White Rock Place, Hastings, since the London photographer Charles Thomas Newcombe (born 1830, London) opened a branch studio at this address in 1863. When Charles Thomas Newcombe returned to London, he sold the studio at 22 White Rock Place to Henry William Ashdown, the twenty-two year old son of William Ashdown, the proprietor of a 'fancy bazaar' at 29 White Rock Place. Located on Hastings seafront, White Rock Place became a favourite location for portrait photographers to site their studios. Over a period of twenty-five years, seven different photographic studios were based at 22 White Rock Place.

In 1880, the proprietor of the studio at 22 White Rock Place was Walter Hudson (born c1849, London) an artist and photographer who had previously been employed by Jabez Hughes in Ryde on the Isle of Wight. Around 1886, the the studio at 22 White Rock Place passed to a young photographer named Melancthon Moore.

Melancthon Moore (born 1861, Forest Hill, Kent) was the son-in-law of the veteran photographer John Wesley Thomas (1831-1908). At the time of the 1881 census Melancthon Moore was a nineteen year old auctioneer's clerk lodging at 21 White Rock Place. After Melancthon Moore, married Annie Thomas (the eldest daughter of the photographer John Wesley Thomas) in 1884, Melancthon Moore became a professional photographer, probably under the tutelage of his father-in-law. Around 1886,   Melancthon Moore acquired Walter Hudson's former studio at 22 White Rock Place, Hastings.

[ABOVE] The trade plate of the photographer Melancthon Moore showing him as the proprietor of the Grosvenor Studio in White Rock Place, Hastings.

Initially, it appears that Melancthon Moore called his studio at 22 White Rock Place the 'Grosvenor Studio'. It is not clear whether the studio was known as the Memorial Studio when it was occupied by Walter Hudson. For a brief period between Walter Hudson's departure and Melancthon Moore moving into No.21 White Rock Place, the portrait photographs produced at No. 22 White Rock Place carried the credit "The Grosvenor Studio" with no mention of Walter Hudson or Melancthon Moore.

From around 1890, Melancthon Moore was recorded as a professional photographer at No. 21 White Rock Place, Hastings. After a year or so, Melancthon Moore dropped the name "Grosvenor Studio".

[ABOVE] A modern photograph taken in 2008, showing No. 21 and No. 22 White Rock Place, Hastings. The photographer Melancthon Moore acquired the photographic studio at No. 22 White Rock Place around 1886. The following year, Melancthon Moore took over the studio situated next door at No. 21 White Rock Place, Hastings. When this photograph was taken, the site of The Grosvenor Studio at No. 22 White Rock Place was occupied by the Scope charity shop.

[ABOVE] Details of the photographer Melancthon Moore taken from the back of a carte-de-visite produced around 1890. In this printed publicity Melancthon Moore is described as "Late Walter Hudson, Grosvenor Studio, 21 White Rock Place, Hastings".
 

[ABOVE] A carte-de-visite portrait of a woman produced by the Grosvenor Studio at 22 White Rock Place, Hastings (c1890). [ABOVE] The design on the reverse of a carte-de-visite produced by the Grosvenor Studio at 22 White Rock Place, Hastings (c1890). [ABOVE] A carte-de-visite portrait of a woman produced by the Grosvenor Studio at 22 White Rock Place, Hastings (c1890).
 

William Thomas GROVES (c1843-1890) - Beach Photographer in Hastings & St Leonards between 1889 and 1890

William Thomas Groves was born around 1843. It appears that in 1890, William Groves was working as a beach photographer in Hastings & St Leonards. The only evidence we have of this is the fact that William Thomas Groves, described as "a beach photographer of 47 King's Road, St Leonards" committed suicide on Tuesday, 11th March 1890 by drinking cyanide of potassium, a chemical used by photographers.

An inquest investigating the death of William Thomas Groves was held at the Market Hall, Hastings, on the evening of Wednesday 12th March 1890 in the presence of Mr. C. D. Jones, the Borough Coroner. A witness named William Douch testified that he saw William Groves in Western Road the previous afternoon. William Groves appeared to be unwell and asked his friend to help him home. William Douch got the ailing photographer as far as Mr Lester's stable-yard, laid him against a landau and went to seek assistance from the men who were working at the stables. When William Douch returned with help, he found that William Groves was dead. A policeman, P.C. Hope was summoned to the scene and on searching the body he found a bottle labelled "Poison". At the post-morten, Mr H. F. Cheshire, a public analyst found "a quantity of cyanide of potassium" in the contents of the deceased man's stomach.

Mr S. W. Iorworth Joseph, a surgeon of St Leonards, reported that the deceased man had consulted him in November 1889 about "a complaint which affected his head and one side of his body". The surgeon concluded that William Groves was "much depressed on account of the breakdown of his health". In the doctor's opinion, Mr Groves was "not, at times accountable for his actions". Mrs Groves, the photographer's widow, confirmed that her husband "had not been quite right in his mind for some time".

After hearing the testimony of the witnesses, the Coroner's Jury returned the verdict that William Thomas Groves had committed suicide "whilst in a state of temporary insanity".

 

[ABOVE] The suicide of William Thomas Groves, a beach photographer from St Leonards-on-Sea, as reported in The Sussex Express in March 1890. William Groves killed himself by drinking cyanide of potassium, a chemical used by photographers.

 

[ABOVE] A report of the suicide of William Thomas Groves, a beach photographer of 47 King's Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea, which appeared in the Hastings & St Leonards News on 14th March, 1890.

 

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